Ratio Analysis: Measuring Business Performance

By Athos Louca
2 min read

Ratios are calculated from an organisation’s financial statements and are an effective business tool in measuring its performance. By comparing the ratios to those of the previous year it is possible to determine whether a business is doing better this year than last year.

It is also possible to compare ratios of one organisation against those of another in a similar industry, a practice known as Benchmarking.  This helps identify areas in which one business is either under performing or indeed is out performing another.  Undertaking ratio analysis and making comparisons to market leaders within your industry will help focus on areas which require attention. It is important not to simply calculate as many ratios as possible, but to identify those most relevant to your business.

Ratio Categories

There are many different ratios that can be calculated and which can be grouped together into five main categories:

  • Profitability
  • Liquidity
  • Operational
  • Solvency
  • Gearing

Different interpreters of the financial statements will be more interested in certain ratios than others.  For example, lenders will be interested in Gearing ratios such as interest cover and debt to equity. Whilst other business owners are likely to concentrate on Profitability and Operational ratios.

Measuring Business Performance and Target Setting

By carefully selecting the most suitable ratios business owners and managers can use the results to gain a better understanding of how their organisation is performing.  The same ratios can also be used to set future targets.

For example, a business may be experiencing cash flow problems.  The business owner believes that his customers are taking too long to settle their accounts.  By calculating their debtors days and recording the results, it will be possible not only to establish what the current position is, but also to set targets for the future.  This may be to reduce the debtor days from thirty five to twenty five days.  A reduction in debtor days will help ease cash flow and reduce the risk of bad debts.

An organisation should select a number of ratios which provide key information about its performance.  These are known as Key Results Indicators.  Whilst these will vary from business to business some of the most common are listed below:

  • Gross Profit Margin
  • Net Profit Margin
  • Trading Overheads as percentage of Turnover
  • Debtor & Creditor Days
  • Current Ratio
  • Debt to Equity
  • Return on Capital Employed

The calculated ratios should be recorded in a concise format and form part of the management information reports.  The use of graphs will allow trends to be easily identified, avoiding the risk of getting lost in the numbers.

We have helped many clients design and implement effective ratios as part of their business key performance indicators to help them assess where their business is.  If you would like any assistance on selecting the right ratios and other key performance indicators, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Enterprise Management Incentive Scheme (EMI) Options

3 min read

An Enterprise Management Incentive (“EMI”) scheme is an HMRC approved share option scheme aimed at smaller businesses to retain and motivates key employees. This guide will discuss what EMI schemes are and how they work.

So what is an EMI share options scheme ?

A share option gives the right to someone to purchase a share in a business at an agreed price at some point in the future.  Typically, but not necessarily, this would be at the point of sale. The option holder must be an employee of the company and must spend at least 75% of their working time at that company.


Why would you consider using an EMI scheme ?

EMI schemes are becoming more and more popular with businesses with HMRC reporting a marked increase in the number of business implementing the schemes during 2017.

The main reasons businesses consider introducing EMI schemes are to motivate and retain key members of their workforce.

Employees will have a sense of ownership and will also benefit from the increased value of the business.


Is an EMI scheme complicated to implement ?

At the outset there is a procedure that needs to be followed which is likely to require the assistance of professional advisors.
Outline of Procedure:

  • Prepare a market value valuation of the business and agree with HMRC
  • Agree the terms of the scheme and set out in an option agreement
  • Possibly minor amendments to the company’s Articles of Association
  • Grant the options to the employees and get them to sign the option agreement
  • Notify HMRC of the options that have been granted

Other than an annual declaration that has to be made to HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) each year notifying them of any changes to the options that have been granted there is no on-going work required to maintain the scheme.

Much of the documentation that is mentioned above can be used for further granting of options at a later stage.  It may be necessary to obtain a further agreement from HMRC as to the value of the shares.


What are the Tax Advantages of EMI share options ?

EMI schemes have a number of tax advantages attached to them over unapproved share options.

  • Providing the options have an exercise price which was no less than the market value at the time of granting then there is no income tax or national insurance contributions payable.
  • Once the options have been exercised and sold then the employee will pay capital gains tax on any gain. The gain should qualify for Entrepreneurs Relief which will mean they will be taxed at a rate of 10%.  This is far less than if they were to pay income tax on the gain as they would do for unapproved options, which could be as much as 45% or possibly more if NICs were to become payable.
  • Key employees are likely to stay with the company as the probability of a profitable capital return, motivates them. Employee’s motivation and interests are aligned towards the shareholders and the board when they have a tangible interest in the company’s ownership. As a result, everyone is focused on adding more shareholder value.
  • Employees feel more valued in a share option scheme in the long term. Employees have an incentive to grow of the business and make themselves more accountable.


What will it cost me ?

Typically to implement an EMI scheme will cost around £2,500 to £3,000 plus VAT.  This may vary depending on how many employees are to be included in the scheme.


What are the downsides of an EMI scheme ?

If the trigger point for exercising the options is based around the sale of a business and the owner subsequently decides not to sell this can act as a demotivator for employees as the scheme may no longer be fit for purpose.

There are a number of disqualifying events laid down by HMRC which could affect the tax status of the scheme.  Whilst in most cases these may not be relevant, consideration needs to be given to them when making some business decisions.

The initial setup costs are high if options are only going to be granted to a small number of employees.

How we can help  ?

As an accounting firm, we are able to provide a wide range of services tailored to your particular industry. With over 40 years experience our team at Loucas has set up many EMI schemes for a variety of businesses in numerous business sectors. We have a dedicated team to ensure that you are guided though share option schemes with ease.

We believe by staying up to date with not only current but changing legislation and industry news we are better placed to help our clients and their businesses succeed.

If you would like to discuss you options with EMI share option schemes or how Loucas can assist you please do not hesitate to contact us.

Enterprise Management Incentive Scheme (EMI)

Further Information

The information contained in this publication has been prepared for general guidance and is not intended as advice. Whilst every care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the information, no responsibility can be accepted by Loucas for any loss resulting from acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. The information in this publication is not designed as a substitute for seeking professional advice.

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